Bindii is a winter growing annual weed. Bindii produce small yellowish flowers, forming compact seed heads that contain small spiky seeds. The seed are spread by foot traffic and pets. The best time to control Bindii is in late winter to spring when plants are young prior to flowering. This prevents the formation of seed heads and the spreading of the weed.
An autumn or winter annual dicot weed with a rosette forming growth habit. Leaves are deeply lobed and often possess a silvery white downy underside. The inflorescence is many small flowers on a black, pitted receptacle with radiating yellow florets similar in appearance to a daisy. Flowers form in late winter and spring producing woolly seeds that stick to clothing and effectively spread the weed through traffic and wind. The deep tap root can make this weed difficult to control through both hand weeding and chemical application.
Cats ear is a perennial, stemless rosette forming dicot weed that forms a similar growth habit to the dandelion. Leaf margins have shallow, rounded lobes and are slightly hairy to touch. The deep taproot allows for drought resistance and can make control difficult as plants can regenerate from remaining root tissue. Produces a bright yellow flower in late spring or early summer which is similar in appearance to the dandelion flower, but smaller in size and produces multiple flowers on each stem.
Chickweed is winter annual weed, with small, paired, egg shaped, pointed-tip leaves on long, round, weak stems that have a line of hairs between the nodes. It has small white flowers with 5 deeply notched petals that are shorter than the sepals. Chickweed reproduces by seed and through a fibrous root system. It has a creeping habit and is mainly found in moist and compacted soil areas.
Creeping oxalis is a perennial weed with a prostrate growth habit. It can be identified by its light green heart shaped leaves, very similar in appearance to clover. The flowers are small, about 3-4mm in diameter and bright yellow in colour containing five petals. When seed pods mature they dry out and explode, causing the seed to spread. Plants contain a tap-root which can make it very difficult to control.
Cudweed is an annual or biennial weed that forms a rosette growth habit. The leaves are ovate with a dull light green surface and a white underside. when established they form clumps and produce pink to purple flowers throughout spring and summer.
Dandelion is a perennial, stemless weed that grows low to the ground forming rosettes of leaves around a central point, typically emerging in winter. The Leaves are deeply lobed with jagged inverted points along the margin. During the spring and summer, bright yellow flowers are produced on tall hollow stalks. The flowers turn into the characteristics spherical, puff-ball like clumps of seeds which are easily carried by the wind. A common weed of turf as it tolerates low mowing height and can be difficult to control due to its larger tap root from which it can regrow.
Dock is a broadleaf perennial weed with large oval leaves making it easy to identify. It has deep tap roots which help it adapt to a wide variety of soil conditions and environments. They produce many green to white flowers and reproduce through both seed and root parts.
Fleabane is a summer annual that sometimes occurs during the winter months. It is a tall growing dicot with a tough, hairy stem which becomes harder and of a woody consistency as the plant matures. Leaves are alternately arranged and are dark green in colour with toothed margins and fine hairs coating the surface. When immature or when existing in closely mown turf the fleabane plant initially appears as a flat, rosette like weed, however as it matures the stem lengthens with leaves forming around the entirety of the stem.
In spring and autumn large clumps of flowers will form around the top of the tall stem, forming fluffy clusters as seeds begin to form. An extremely difficult to control weed due to its tough woody nature and hairy leaves. Often found growing in turf or in sandy or disturbed soils.
Lambs Tongue (also known as plantain) is a common perennial weed of turf and lawns. Easily identified by the distinct slender parallel veins on the leaves that form 1 or more rosettes from which emerge long, slender flowering stems carrying dense, brown, cylindrical seed heads that often have white anthers sticking out of them. It is common in all areas of Australia but is predominantly found near the coast.
Mullumbimby Couch is a perennial mat-forming, grass like sedge up to 15cm high with dark green, glossy, strap-like leaves. Possesses tough long, rhizomes which are red to purple in colour, stems are triangular in cross-section which is characteristic of sedges. Inflorescence is observed mostly throughout spring and summer and presents as a single round compact spike with three short curved leaves protruding from the base of the seed head. Grows best in areas of excessive soil moisture and humidity and can be difficult to control due to a strong network of rhizomes from which individual plants can regenerate. Propagated through both seed and rhizomes.
Nutgrass is a perennial rapidly spreading grass-like sedge with flat tapered, slightly corrugated leaves. The stem is triangular in cross-section, a feature which is unique to sedges. The name nutgrass comes from the nut-like tubers found on rhizomes under the surface. These tubers serve as energy storage for the weed which can make it difficult to control. Seeds from summer through autumn, with yellowish brown seeds arranged in narrow spikelets on an umbel like inflorescence. Propagated from both seed and tubers.
Onion Grass is a perennial grassy weed with between 3 and 10 thin strappy leaves rising from the central base up to 30cm long. The leaves are up to 2mm wide with a prominent central midrib that protrudes to create an almost cylindrical leaf blade in cross section. Flowering in spring, the onion grass plant produces 2-4 small flowers per plant that are positioned around the base of the plant. The flowers are purple in colour with a base and centre, comprising of six lanceolate petals about 10mm in length.
Onion Grass is difficult to remove and carefully spot treating with Gylphosate by brushing onto the leaves only is an effective but labour intensive solution. Remove plant once dead. Professional solutions exist in pre emergent herbicide, treating an area before the plant emerges.
Pampas grass is a robust, long-lived perennial plant family containing many species considered weeds in Australia. It generally takes the form of a large tussock, approximately 1–1.5 m across, with attractive, plumed flower heads carried on tall stems. Seeds are easily spread through wind and water making it a difficult weed to control.
Glyphosate treatment is recommended.
Paspalum is a perennial grassy, clump forming weed with a robust rhizomatous growth habit. The leaves generally possess a characteristic purple colour at the base of the sheath, with a rolled vernation and large membranous ligule. Leaf blades can be broad and long, reaching up to 25cm in length. Long stems up to 50cm in length bare a unique, drooping seed heads with round white seeds. Seeds can be sticky to touch and are spread easily through contact and transport. Paspalum can be propagated through seed or through rhizomes.
Note: Treatment not suitable for QLD Blue Couch
Pearlwort is a dense low growing dicot weed with smooth slender stems rooting at the nodes with oppositely arranged, thin grassy like leaves up to 14mm long branch out from the stem at close intervals. These heavily branched stems form a mat-like growth habit that forms thick ground cover. Small flowers appear in spring, summer and autumn and are a small, inconspicuous flower with green sepals and tiny white petals. Flowers remain closed in bud and are visible only briefly as them bloom. Pearlwort is propagated mainly through seed but can also grow from vegetative parts.
Sow Thistle is a annual weed with a basal rosette and an upright flowering stem. The leaves are deeply notched and wavy. Sow thistle has yellow flowers that appear in late spring, and the leaves and stems emit a milky-white latex when crushed.
Summergrass is a warm season annual weed with an aggressive spreading growth habit. Summergrass leaves are of a green-yellow colour with light purple or white sheaths at the stem base and a membranous ligule. Seed heads appear throughout spring, summer and autumn and consist of multiple small, finger-like spikes radiating from a central point and covered in tiny black seeds. Propagated from seed as well as stolons.
White Clover is a creeping perennial weed with a very vigorous growth habit. They are easily recognised by their characteristic green, trifoliate compound leaves. The flowers are white and resemble a small pom pom, which usually extend beyond the height of the leaves. Flowers usually occur from spring to autumn. Due to its vigorous, flat growth habit it is able to spread rapidly and easily compete with turf species.
Wintergrass is a grassy cool season annual with perennial and biennial bio-types observed in some regions. Light green in colour with a tufted growth habit and a white panicle inflorescence germinating from late winter throughout spring and summer. Leaf blades possess a folded venation with a long ligule and boat-shaped leaf tips that curl up at the ends.A highly adaptive weed that can thrive in shaded areas and full sun depending on moisture conditions. Tolerates low mowing heights and can persist in golf greens all year round. Plants reach maturity quickly and seed profusely making them an aggressive weed that can be difficult to control.